Kelly karp landscape design

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If you recall, this upstream portion of Goodman is hand work and spot treatments, with a slightly more intensive repair just downstream of the concrete weir. Goodman has more infrastructure required to support the stream restoration, therefore concrete pipes, and other types of pipe will be arriving on site as they are available from the manufacturers currently estimates are through March. The white is closed cell foam plastic wrap. This is part of the tree protection defense that will help protect the tree if it is accidentally hit by the heavy equipment. This, during design, was the first time we included this technique as it was the best recommendation at the time.

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Most landscapes are comprised of multiple habitat types differing in the biodiversity they contain. This is certainly true for human modified landscapes, which are often a mix of habitats managed with different intensity, semi-natural habitats and even pristine habitats.

To understand fundamental questions of how the composition of such landscapes affects biodiversity conservation, and to evaluate biodiversity consequences of policies that affect the composition of landscapes, there is a need for models able to translate information on biodiversity from individual habitats to landscape-wide predictions.

However, this is complicated by species richness not being additive. We constructed a model to help analyze and solve this problem based on two simple assumptions. Firstly, that a habitat can be characterized by the biological community inhabiting it; i. Secondly, that the probability of a species occurring in a particular unit of land is dictated by its average density in the associated habitats, its spatial aggregation, and the size of the land unit.

This model leads to a multidimensional species-area relation one dimension per habitat. The model lends itself to economic analyses of biodiversity problems, without the need to monetarize biodiversity value, i. Land prices and management costs will affect the solution, such that the model can be used to estimate the number of species gained in relation to expenditure on each habitat.

We illustrate the utility of the model by applying it to agricultural landscapes in southern Sweden and demonstrate how empirical monitoring data can be used to find the best habitat allocation for biodiversity conservation within and between landscapes. Landscapes usually consist of a mix of habitats. Such mosaic landscapes may be natural e. Mosaic landscapes may be inhabited by many organisms and can have high biodiversity Rafe et al.

However, to understand fundamental questions of how landscape composition affects biodiversity conservation, and to evaluate consequences of policies that affect the composition of landscapes, there is a need for models able to translate information on biodiversity from individual habitats to landscape-wide predictions.

Anthropogenic habitat alteration is a primary driver of biodiversity loss, through changes in land use e. Land use may be affected by policies that compensate landowners for profits forgone and management costs. A contentious issue in conservation is therefore to evaluate the impacts of alternative policies on conservation of species Brady et al. An important approach for scenario analysis and modeling biodiversity effects of land use change, is the countryside species-area relationship cSAR, Pereira and Daily,The cSAR approach is widely applied for scenario analyses of land use change and habitat alteration across different spatial scales e.

The cSAR builds on the canonical species-area relationship, or SAR Rosenzweig, ; He and Legendre, , with more species predicted in larger habitat areas, which is a law-like relation in ecology, first described at least a century ago Arrhenius,Empirical SAR-curves come in a variety of forms that may reflect different study design or the mechanisms generating these curves Matthews et al.

However, as pointed out by Rosenzweig and detailed below, the classic SAR is purely phenomenological and does not include underlying mechanisms. The cSAR is a modification of the classic SAR, in which each species is assumed to have different affinities to the different habitat types considered Pereira and Daily,We aim to develop a probabilistic model of biodiversity in mosaic landscapes that is suitable for scenario analyses and economic or environmental policy analyses. It can be used as an alternative to the cSAR, and has the advantages that it: builds on transparent assumptions and does not pre-suppose a phenomenological form of SAR; maintains species identity throughout analyses; incorporates species overlap between habitats; and can be used to calculate true diversities.

Hence our model does not pre-suppose a SAR such as e. Like the cSAR our model concerns multiple habitats, each with their own biological community, making it possible to investigate how converting one habitat to another affects overall landscape biodiversity. As our model maintains species identity, it is explicit about which species are likely to be present in, or disappear from, a particular habitat area, or landscape after transformation.

To do this correctly, our model accounts for species overlap, i. Furthermore, the probabilistic approach we use allows the calculation of true diversities, or any Hill number Hill, ; Jost, , including Shannon and Gini-Simpson diversity, and not just species richness.

Following the approach taken in cSAR studies e. Hence, within a landscape it is only the total habitat area and not whether it occurs in a single or multiple patches that matters. Thus, the model we develop here does not include thresholds in area or fragmentation effects, even though such can be important in many cases depending on the scales considered Fahrig, ; Haddad et al. There are other methods that deal with statistically estimating community composition in multi-habitat landscapes, from repeated datasets in a Bayesian framework e.

Our aim is quite different, in that we develop a simpler model, useful for scenario analysis, which can use anything from simple estimates of community composition to real data. We demonstrate how the model can be applied for optimizing mosaic landscapes to achieve the goals of a conservation policy, such as maximizing species diversity.

In the site-constrained reserve selection problem, the goal is to maximize species representation e. In contrast, our model is not site-constrained in the sense that it allows both the size and type of habitat areas to be controlled by management. Economic and biodiversity consequences of modifying areas often differ between habitats, and habitats with high conservation value may often be more costly to conserve.

Our approach makes it possible to determine the optimal allocation of competing habitats within a defined area or budget constraint. We begin by describing a general probabilistic model of species richness for a single habitat area with some particular spatial distribution of organisms. We then extend the model to landscapes with two or more habitats, and describe methods to find optimal habitat allocation in multiple habitat landscapes. We illustrate some of our points with a dataset of birds, observed in landscapes consisting of six different farmland habitats, but the model itself is completely general and not restricted to any particular dataset or habitat types.

Specifically, we will show how the model can be used to: i predict the consequences of converting one habitat to another; ii predict the contribution, and thus marginal diversity value, of a habitat to landscape level biodiversity. A habitat is a piece of land or water with a distinct community composition of species, i. Habitat categories can be defined from land use or land cover classes, as long as the densities of inhabiting species are repeatable within them.

From the probabilities, we estimate expected species richness in those patches. S i is the species richness in a patch of habitat i , which is between 0 and K. Due to randomness we can never be sure that a particular species will occur in a particular habitat patch even though it belongs to that habitat's species pool i. Thus, we begin by characterizing the probability of a species occurring in a patch of a particular habitat type.

In this paper we use the simplifying assumptions that m i,j is independent of area itself and there are no threshold effects, even though such effects may occur in some important cases e. Furthermore, we do not consider effects of the spatial arrangement of habitats within landscapes, but only habitat amount effects Fahrig,As the probability that a species occurs in a patch is bounded between 0 and 1 and densities are non-negative, it follows that the probability that a species occurs in a habitat patch is an increasing concave function of area Figure 1A.

The expected total number of species in the habitat patch is then the sum of probabilities for all species in the pool:. Figure 1. A Probability of occurrence of 20 species with random spatial distribution as a function of patch area.

Different species have different densities in the habitat, which affects the slope of their respective curves. B Species area relation generated by the model for a single habitat, under three different spatial aggregation patterns of individuals: spatial independence among individuals of the same species solid blue , regular dotted yellow , and aggregated spatial arrangement dashed red.

The solid blue curve is the sum of the probability curves in A. C The species area relation on log-log scale. Therefore, species richness, S i , is also a concave function of area, i. Hence, a SAR is expected from basic probability theory Figure 1B , and as there are only K species in the community, we also conclude that this SAR reaches an upper asymptote rather than increasing indefinitely cf.

Rosenzweig,It therefore cannot be approximated by a power-function and will not be linear on log-log scale Figure 1C. This holds true irrespective of how individuals are spatially distributed within and among species. To estimate species richness we need to make some explicit assumptions about the spatial distributions of individual organisms, and we will use three well-known and often applied distributions: Poisson, negative binomial, and binomial.

If the number of individuals of a species found in a unit of area follows the Poisson distribution it is equivalent to assuming that each individual occurs independently of the whereabouts of other individuals within a habitat Pielou,Although organisms will not be distributed independently of each other, this assumption is routinely made, e.

For Poisson distributed organisms the probability to encounter at least one i. The resulting SAR, as found by combining expressions 1 and 2, is shown by the solid curve in Figure 1B. As two alternatives to spatial independence we may assume either a spatially aggregated or spatially regular distribution. If the individuals of a species are aggregated, their numbers per unit area may follow a negative binomial distribution, and hence.

Alternatively, if the organisms are more regularly dispersed repulsed the probability could be calculated from the binomial distribution:. Note that in expressions 3 and 4, a i cancels everywhere except in the exponents. We see that the underlying spatial distributions of the organisms affects the SAR, but not dramatically, and the general shape of the curve decelerating toward an asymptote is unaffected.

If the individuals of species are evenly dispersed in space binomial , more species are likely to be found in a small area, than if they are randomly dispersed Poisson. If they are strongly aggregated negative binomial , larger areas need to be included before all species are found.

For the Poisson distribution it is possible to simplify the algebra by using matrix notation and rewrite expression 1 as. Note that M i is a single row matrix with the densities of all species in habitat i, m i,j , as elements, and 1 is a K -length column vector of ones to accomplish the summation. It follows from expressions 1 and 2 that the rate of change in species richness with area is.

M i T is the transpose of M i. This derivative tends to zero as area goes to infinity, i. However, for simplicity we limit the treatment to species richness in this paper. Species richness in a mosaic landscape is affected by the habitat mix and the extent of species overlap between different habitats. Thus, some species might occur in multiple habitats whilst others occur in single habitats. With two habitats, expected species richness in the landscape, i. Here I 1 and I 2 are the subsets of species in habitat 1 and 2 respectively, and p 1, j p 2, j is the probability of species j occurring in both habitats, and hence this term eliminates the probability of species common to both habitats, which follows from basic set theory Appendix S1.

The calculation of expected species richness in the case of three or more habitats follows from 7 the case of three habitats is shown in Appendix S1 : it equals the sum of the probabilities of each species j occurring in each habitat i with area a i in the landscape, adjusted for species overlap among habitats. It may be convenient to substitute q 1, j for 1- p 1, j and q 2, j for 1- p 2, j in equation 7, such that. That is, the probabilities to sum are simply the probabilities of each species not being absent from both habitats.

In fact, this general result can be extended to any number of habitats Appendix S1 , but does require discrete habitat classes, and will not be easy to apply to habitat gradients without discretizing them. A is a single row matrix with habitat areas, a 1 and a 2.

Note that expression 9 is general for any spatial distribution of organisms, whereas 10 and 11 are specific to densities following the Poisson distribution. Additionally, A can be extended with additional rows for each landscape for which calculations are being made. We may also consider correlations in densities among species across habitats. In Figure 2A , we show an example of a landscape consisting of two habitats.

The total species richness is given by the contours isoquants , as a function of the areas of habitats 1 and 2. Increasing the area of any of the habitats will increase species richness, and naturally, an increase in habitat 1 will increase species richness by the same amount as an increase in habitat 2, i.

Landscape Design Services receives statewide awards

To improve your kitchen on a budget, try decluttering by using clever storage and organize existing cabinets with innovative interior accessories. Fresh paint, backsplash, statement bar stools, an accent wall, new appliances and countertops, and updated cabinet hardware, window treatments and lighting can really make a kitchen pop. Mass plantings and hedges have become common in the landscape beds; these planting concepts catch and direct the eye through the landscape. Many patio spaces are moving toward using larger format pavers. Accents are also a big part of the hardscape movement. Using a different color or texture to create interest in the patio or walls visually breaks up the space. Path lights, up lights on plants, down lights from mature trees, and lights under retaining wall caps all help create a safe and usable space after the sun goes down.

Foreman @ Landscape Design Services, Inc. Teaching Assistant @ Michigan State University. Education. State. Bachelors (Landscape Architecture). -

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The identification, evaluation, and treatment of archeological sites are essential activities for effective cultural resource management. Archeologists cannot make appropriate decisions regarding resource treatment without knowing about their locations and significance. Site management involves many steps such as developing a research design, preservation, stabilization, and public education and site interpretation, which are discussed below. The discovery and examination of archeological resources are two basic activities undertaken by archeologists. Archeological surveys seek to identify all or a sample of the archeological resources in a given study area. Site testing or evaluation focuses on extracting information about the size, contents, and structure of an archeological site, a portion of a site, a number of related sites, or, perhaps, the spatial distribution of archeological remains within an area, such as a portion of a river valley or a battlefield. Choosing appropriate techniques for an archeological investigation depends on many factors. First, one must consider the purpose of the investigation. Is the target one kind of site-for example, a prehistoric mound or a site of a particular time period?

Palazzo Della Luna Unveils $14.5 Million Residence by Champalimaud Design

The interview also covers gambling, Block 16, the first members of the police force, recreational activities, and the Helldorado parade. Sam also talks about his work as a building contractor, including some of the buildings and casino properties he helped build, and the interview moves to a discussion of the development of the Las Vegas Strip. Looking west through the remains of Saint Thomas from near the remains of Jacob Baver's blacksmith shop. The town was first covered by Lake Mead in JuneThomas, Nevada, settled by the Mormons in , during a period of low water elevation in Lake Mead, above Hoover Dam.

Amenities include an oceanfront terrace on the third floor with dual pool experiences and luxury cabanas; a Four Seasons spa; a fitness centre; a signature all-day restaurant with interior and alfresco seating; a pool bar; and an outdoor lounge.

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Email Address. The City of Medford launched a citywide Comprehensive Master Planning Process on June 9, that will result in a long-range vision for the City with policy and guidance for implementation of the Plan over the next ten years. The Comprehensive Master Planning process is expected to take approximately months and the resulting Plan will provide a basis for decision-making about climate adaptation and mitigation practices, land use planning and redevelopment, budget preparation and capital improvement planning for public facilities and services. For translation and other accommodations, please enter your request when registering or contactWe will do our best to accommodate any requests, though some requests require more notice than others. The Steering Committee includes local business owners, planning professionals, parents and grandparents, Medford High School students, long-time residents and newer residents, City Council and Community Development Board members, a range of races and ethnicities, and representatives from different geographic areas of the City.

209 Landscape Architects and Contractors in Grand Rapids, MI

A Shingle-style home in Fairfield County, created by Karp Associates of Greenwich, is fully traditional in its exterior details. That means marketing in real estate. It is challenging to sell a very expensive thing. The more costly any item is, the more marketing is needed to find a buyer. The most expensive thing almost all of us need is our home.

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IES Faculty researchers lead and participate in local, national and international studies and present their findings in peer-reviewed journals, books and websites to contribute to the wider body of scientific knowledge. Listed below are the IES faculty publications by year of publication. Kenneth M.

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Prior to joining CBRE in , Adam led the Retail and eCommerce practice for Fortna, where he led companies on how best to solve complex supply chain problems in support of their business imperatives. Adam grew-up in Naples, Florida, spent 14 years in Atlanta after attending college and now lives in Philadelphia. He enjoys spending time outdoors with his wife Natalie, preferably while on road bikes. During his time in Portland, Alex discovered his love for the Pacific Northwest and was thrilled to have the opportunity to move to Seattle and join KBC.

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Most landscapes are comprised of multiple habitat types differing in the biodiversity they contain. This is certainly true for human modified landscapes, which are often a mix of habitats managed with different intensity, semi-natural habitats and even pristine habitats. To understand fundamental questions of how the composition of such landscapes affects biodiversity conservation, and to evaluate biodiversity consequences of policies that affect the composition of landscapes, there is a need for models able to translate information on biodiversity from individual habitats to landscape-wide predictions. However, this is complicated by species richness not being additive. We constructed a model to help analyze and solve this problem based on two simple assumptions. Firstly, that a habitat can be characterized by the biological community inhabiting it; i.

Lasvit combines the authenticity of glass craft with innovative technologies and creative craftsmanship. In a few short years, Lasvit has established itself as the authority delivering bespoke lighting sculptures and art installations made from hand-blown glass. Collaborations with renowned designers and artists produce also unique glass collections. We are a German research firm covering global hotel constructions, that over a decade branched out into hospitality events, media, and hotel design.

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