Despite the abundance of effective chemical fertilizers in stores, the relevance of self-prepared bioferments is gaining popularity. The reasons are the environmental friendliness of the funds, their availability, as well as the positive impact they have on the growth, development and productivity of cultivated crops.
Lupine belongs to rhizome legumes. Due to the high content of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients, it is used in agriculture as green manure and livestock feed.
Long roots are able to extract the necessary substances from the depths and convert them into an easily digestible form. The cultivation and subsequent plowing of green manure into the soil enrich the land with macronutrients and organic matter; in terms of nutritional value, lupine is compared to manure.
Liquid fertilizer is easy to prepare:
Fill the green mass with water, add yeast and mix. The workpiece should be infused for 2 weeks, and then the fermented mixture is passed through a sieve. The concentrated infusion is diluted with water (1 to 10) before use. It cannot be stored in this form.
Lupine Tincture is a great growth promoter for most garden plants, but works best for tomatoes, cabbage and cucumbers.
Nettle has a beneficial effect not only on humans, but also on plants. For horticultural and horticultural crops, it is a source of macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) and vitamins. Plants that are fed with nettle infusion grow better and faster, their yield and resistance to diseases increase. Not recommended for onions, garlic and legumes.
The nettles are plucked before the seeds appear and crushed. Fill any non-iron container (bucket, barrel, container) to half. Add warm or hot water and cover. Then the fertilizer should be mixed every day for two weeks. Heat (in the sun) and / or the presence of activators (yeast) will accelerate maturation. The darkening of the solution and the cessation of foaming indicate the completion of fermentation.
The infusion is diluted with water 1 to 10. Top dressing should be done once or twice a week, at the rate of half a liter-liter per 1 bush.
Spraying is carried out with a solution with double the amount of water (1 to 20). Leaf treatment helps tomatoes resist disease and also increases fruit size.
To fertilize tomatoes, comfrey weed and wood ash are added to the nettle (1 tbsp. Per 10 liters of ready-made infusion). And an increase in the sweetness of strawberries is achieved by introducing bread and yeast into top dressing.
Alfalfa is successfully used in agriculture to restore depleted soils, enrich them with nitrogen and nutrients, alkalize plots, protect the land from weathering, leaching, and drying out. Siderat expels parasites, disinfects the soil, and the green mass cut during the flowering period is suitable for mulching and making fertilizers.
The plant is filled with water by ¾ of the volume of the container. The infusion is ready for use in a week or 10 days, but the condition of the product should be monitored.
The highest concentration will be in a dark green solution that smells of manure, but has not yet completed fermentation. The finished infusion must be filtered and used only after dilution with water (10 parts), so as not to harm the plants (burns the roots). It is enough to carry out feeding 1-2 times a month.
On sale there is a special granulated feed made from dry greens, which is successfully used for fertilizing plantings. It is quick to prepare (after 2 days) and also in the absence of an unpleasant odor.
Weeds such as clover, wheatgrass, dandelion, burdock and others make an excellent biofertilizer with a high nitrogen content.
Prepared in a plastic or wooden container to avoid oxidation. Weeds are chopped by hand or with a knife, tightly packed into containers at least half or 2/3 of the volume, filled with water. To speed up the process, add a tablespoon of urea. Close for two weeks.
The yeast solution is made after the herbal infusion has matured. A kilogram of product is diluted with water (1 bucket), then diluted 1 in 20. Combine the liquids in equal proportions immediately before use.
Adding useful plants, ash, yeast, containing macro- and microelements to infusions, makes it possible to obtain a complex fertilizer, safe for nature, suitable for almost all crops.
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The basic principle of rational use (restoration) of the land is that it is not enough to abandon the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides and replace them with organic fertilizers. Organic farming is based on a deep understanding of the processes occurring in nature. The main concern is not the plant, but the soil. The soil is a living organism, and if it is in a healthy state, then all other problems are solved by themselves - healthy productive plants will grow on it. One of the basic rules is never to leave the soil without vegetation.
The use of green fertilizers is one of the ways to sustainably restore soil fertility.
Green fertilizer , or sideration , is called an agrotechnical method, in which the green mass of some plant species (green manure) is grown and then plowed into the soil to enrich it with nitrogen and organic matter.
In order for the garden and vegetable garden to please you with high yields, fertile soil is needed. Fertility depends on the content of humus in the soil - humus, which accumulates as a result of the processing of organic remains of plants and animals by microorganisms.
Green fertilization is one of the most effective ways to increase soil fertility.
The effectiveness of green fertilizer is about the same as that of manure. The reason for this is the high content of nutrients in the green mass of plants used for green manure and the ability of legumes to accumulate atmospheric nitrogen. After the dying off of the root system, the accumulated organic matter containing nitrogen, in a form readily available for subsequent plants, passes into the soil, enriching it.
To enrich the soil with organic matter and nitrogen is the main purpose of green fertilizer.
Plants used for green soil fertilization
The list of plants recommended for green fertilization is quite extensive. These are, first of all, plants of the legume family and cereals. As a rule, legume-cereal mixtures are used as a green fertilizer. And that's why.
Siderat plants are divided into two groups - these are nitrogen accumulators , that is, legumes, and nitrogen savers ... Leguminous plants, with the help of nodule bacteria developing on their roots, are the main suppliers of biological nitrogen, since they are able to fix nitrogen from the air and enrich the soil with bound nitrogen compounds in a form accessible to plants. The level of nitrogen accumulation in soil varies widely with plant species and soil and climatic conditions. Nitrogen accumulates in the green mass of plants and in the soil, since by the time the green manures are plowed, the bacteria in the nodules are functioning.
Non-leguminous plants enrich the soil with organic matter by decomposing their mass and keep nitrogen from leaching out of the soil. In addition, cereals, due to their fibrous, branched root system, loosen the deep layers of the subsoil, and this is very important for the penetration of water into the soil and improving its water and air regime.
One crop you choose will not be able to satisfy all your needs and soil needs. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to determine what effect of the impact of fertilizers on the soil is necessary, and then select one crop or a mixture of them.
When growing leguminous green manures per hectare, up to 40-50 tons of green mass is formed, containing up to 150-200 kg of nitrogen. In terms of nitrogen content, 1 ton of green fertilizer is equivalent to 1 ton of manure.
•After plowing into the soil and mineralization of green mass of green manure, nitrogen bound in the form of organic compounds is converted into a mineral form and is used by subsequent plants, and the utilization rate of nitrogen in green fertilizer in the first year is almost twice as high as that of manure nitrogen. In addition, leguminous green manures, having a well-developed root system that penetrates deeply into the soil, extract nutrients from the lower soil horizons, and also assimilate phosphorus and other nutrients from poorly soluble compounds. Therefore, during the decomposition of the plowed plant mass, the arable soil layer is enriched not only with organic matter and assimilable nitrogen compounds, but also with phosphorus, potassium and calcium. As a result, soil fertility and the yield of subsequent crops are significantly increased.
•The effectiveness of green fertilizer is highly dependent on the age of the plants. Plants need to be allowed to grow, develop a root system, accumulate green mass, and then embed them in the soil entirely or mow. Young and fresh plants are very rich in nitrogen, quickly decompose in the soil, so after planting the main crop can be planted in 2–4 weeks, but too much raw plant matter should not be planted, as it will not decompose, but sour. The cuttings can be used for mulching or for compost.
•Experienced gardeners recommend planting green fertilizer during the budding period before flowering. The decomposition of plants of a more mature age is slower, but they enrich the soil with organic matter more, since substances are formed in the tissues of mature plants that make up the basis of humus in a stable, that is, hardly destructible form. However, such plant residues are rich in carbon and poor in nitrogen. Therefore, in the soil, due to the activity of microorganisms that decompose plant residues and consume nitrogen, nitrogen deficiency may occur. And this is an undesirable phenomenon for the yield of the subsequent crop. In this case, nitrogen fertilization may be required.
•Practice has shown that planting too much green mass in the soil just before sowing almost always reduces the yield of the subsequent crop. The handbooks do not provide recommendations as to how much fresh green mass should be left for embedding in the soil. Most likely, half of the green mass should be left in the soil, and half should be put into the compost heap.
•How much green mass to embed in the soil is a matter of intuition and experience of the farmer, since many factors must be taken into account. Fresh plant residues almost always contain inhibitors of growth and germination, therefore it is necessary to wait until they are processed by microorganisms.
Basic requirements for green fertilizers
•Often sowing crops for green fertilization is carried out in poorly cultivated soil. It is not right! Do not sow in non-dug or roughly dug soil. It is very important to carefully prepare the beds for sowing. The soil should be well loosened. Good loosening of the soil before sowing promotes rapid root growth and, due to this, the overall development of green manure crops.
•Seeds should be planted shallow, especially small ones. Pre-check them for germination, which will determine the quality and quantity for sowing. Green fertilizer is planted in the fall, after the start of frost. The seeding depth on light soils is 12–15 cm, on heavy soils - 6–8 cm; with deeper burial, plant residues do not decompose, but turn into a peat-like mass.
•Siderata, like other plants, take as much minerals from the soil as they return to it after dying off. In order to ensure fast and good growth of plants, it is advisable to apply a small dose of organic fertilizers. The use of green fertilizer does not at all exclude the introduction of manure or compost enriched with potassium, phosphorus, calcium and trace elements, but their dose can be significantly reduced.
Experts advise to combine green manure with the introduction of phosphorus and potash fertilizers. For leguminous crops, the addition of stone flour is recommended. A significant difference is that in organic farming, they prefer to apply mineral fertilizers to compost, and not to the soil, so that, with the help of microorganisms, they are converted into a more useful form of organic compounds. On depleted soils with a disturbed water-air regime, one should not expect a high efficiency of green fertilizer.
•Do not miss the time of mowing green manure (budding period before flowering). Often these are unpretentious and rapidly developing cultures. Seeding them can create unnecessary worries when growing subsequent crops.
•The choice of crops suitable for green fertilization is determined by the time and duration of their growing period, belonging to a particular family (other cruciferous plants, such as mustard, cannot be grown before different types of cabbage), soil type, and climatic conditions. It goes without saying that preference is always given to the cultivation of green manure crops with a developed root system and the ability to bind nitrogen, since this is of great importance for the enrichment of the soil with humus.
•Do not get carried away with excess plant residues of green manure on the site. It is better to use some of them for composting and mulching, since if a large amount of fresh green mass is embedded in the soil, then it will not decompose, but sour, in addition, a very large amount of nitrogen can have a negative effect on the main crop. Fresh plant residues almost always contain inhibitors (inhibitors) of growth and germination, so you need to wait until they are processed by microorganisms.
•On the garden plot, the alternation of crops from different botanical families and according to the degree of their nutritional requirements should be observed. If one crop or crops belonging to the same family is grown on the site for a number of years, then a gradual decrease in yield, the development of diseases and the mass reproduction of pests will be noticeable.
This text is an introductory fragment.
Such feeding is especially good for underdeveloped plants - after a few days their leaves turn dark green, and the stem thickens noticeably. There are many recipes for infusion of nettle. And there are even more technologies for its preparation. Here are simple, time-tested recipes for the nutritional formula:
Herbaceous plants can be watered every week, trees and shrubs once a month. As a result, the quality of garden and horticultural crops improves, and you will always have an excellent harvest.
On a note: Fermented nettles give off an unpleasant odor. To get rid of it, it is necessary to add valerian root to the infusion.
And it is also good to put dry nettles in the holes when planting seedlings in the ground. So you can not buy plant growth stimulants in the store, but prepare them yourself.
This green nettle fertilizer is suitable for almost all garden crops.
Not recommended feed only legumes, onions and garlic with such an infusion, since nettle inhibits the growth of these plants.
The use of green fertilizers in the garden not only increases the yield of the crops grown, but also saves money. Indeed, for the preparation of most infusions, only nettle, water and some other natural ingredients (yeast, weeds) are needed, which increase the effectiveness of feeding.
EM technology is a method of saturating the soil with a complex of effective living flora and fauna of the soil, which destroys pathogenic microflora and converts organic matter into organomineral compounds available to plants.
The basis is EM preparations containing several dozen strains of beneficial aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that freely live in the soil. They include lactic acid, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast, fermenting fungi. Introduced into the soil, they multiply rapidly and activate the local saprophytic microflora. Together they process organic matter into organomineral compounds easily assimilated by plants. For 3-5 years, the humus content increases several times. Please note that for EM technology to work, it takes not 1 year (as disappointed readers write about the lack of effect), but several years. There will be no effect when buying a fake instead of a real drug.
Shallots in an organic garden. © Squirrel Nation
Root feeding of any crops is carried out 1-2 times a week, on cloudy days, after rain or during watering. Nettle infusion is poured over the soil around the plants at the rate of 0.5-1 liters for each bush.
Foliar dressing (spraying on the leaves) is carried out, as a rule, once a month.
It should be borne in mind that green fertilizers are best used during active growth (in spring and early summer), since weed infusions contribute to the growth of green mass. And during fruiting, you should not get carried away with such dressings. Otherwise, the crops will grow violently, but bear poor fruit.
We hope we have convinced you that nettle is not just a weed in the garden, but a noble plant, thanks to which you can grow an unprecedented harvest of vegetables and berries.